So part 2 of our Sunday School lesson is something called theology proper. All those words are meant to say is the study of God Himself. He is spirit, infinite, eternal, & unchangeable in His being, wisdom, power, holiness, justice, goodness, & truth. Our goal in life is to glorify God and enjoy Him forever according to the Westminister Catechism.
Why should we study God? How better to engage the mind of mortal man? His eternal destiny depends on knowing the truth about God. According to Packer, "A little knowledge OF God is worth more than a great deal of knowledge ABOUT Him." It is what we Christians call having heart knowledge vs. head knowledge. Head knowledge informs. Heart knowledge transforms. Jeremiah 9:23-24 says that wise men should not boast in our wisdom but if he must boast, he should boast then in the fact that he understands and knows God(Sarita version).
How do we prove that God exists? Well, first there is cosmological(cosmos). The universe had a beginning thus it had to be begun by someone. Even the Big Bang theory states that a small amount of matter exploded into this world. But where did the small amount of matter come from? Trace it back all the way. Second, teleogical evidence exists. Humans are always trying to reach for something that is outside themselves. That design and order imply an intelligent origin. God put in us the need for Him and we seek Him whether we know it or not. Next, there is ontological evidence. That is the theory that since man can conceive a God, then He must surely exist. Lastly, moral evidence comes in. Humans have a sense of right & wrong, a conscience. We may say that there is no absolute. But we intrinsically know that there are. Everyone, even child molesters, knows that murdering a child is wrong. But some people can just dull their consciences.
What is the essence of God? First, God is Spirit according to John 4:24. Next, is God is self-existent. John 5:26 states, "God has life in Himself, so He has granted the Son to have life in Himself." Then, God is bigger than we can even imagine. 1 Kings 8:27 says that "the heavens, even the highest heaven, cannot contain You(God).". God is eternal. "Before the mountains were born or You brought forth the earth & the world from everlasting to everlasting You are God." Psalm 90:2. Finally, God is unchangeable. He does not change like shifting shadows(James 1:17).
God is omnipresent according to Psalm 139:7-10, omniscient (see Isaiah 40:28& Job 37:16), and omnipotent(Genesis 17:1 & Revelation 19:6). He is:
Righteous-Genesis 18:25, 2 Timothy 4:8
Full of grace-1 Peter 5:10
Patient-1 Peter 3:20, 1 Peter 3:9
God has 1 plan for man and that is salvation. According to His own will and for His own glory, he has preordained all that will happen(Ephesians 1:11). God created everything including time. He maintains the existence of the things He made(Colossians 1:17). He controls everything and directs all events to the outcome that best suits Him.
I will leave you with a quote from Packer:
"The Christian's instincts of trust & worship are stimulated very powerfully by knowledge of the greatness of God...But this is knowledge which Christians today largely lack: & that is one reason why our faith is so feeble & our worship so flabby."